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1. 陈睿何晓飞是王小川在成都七中的同学,王海宁是王小川许朝军在人人的同事。
2.   BEFORE applying the principles arrived at in the last chapter to organic beings in a state of nature, we must briefly discuss whether these latter are subject to any variation. To treat this subject at all properly, a long catalogue of dry facts should be given; but these I shall reserve for my future work. Nor shall I here discuss the various definitions which have been given of the term species. No one definition has as yet satisfied all naturalists; yet every naturalist knows vaguely what he means when he speaks of a species. Generally the term includes the unknown element of a distinct act of creation. The term 'variety' is almost equally difficult to define; but here community of descent is almost universally implied, though it can rarely be proved. We have also what are called monstrosities; but they graduate into varieties. By a monstrosity I presume is meant some considerable deviation of structure in one part, either injurious to or not useful to the species, and not generally propagated. Some authors use the term 'variation' in a technical sense, as implying a modification directly due to the physical conditions of life; and 'variations' in this sense are supposed not to be inherited: but who can say that the dwarfed condition of shells in the brackish waters of the Baltic, or dwarfed plants on Alpine summits, or the thicker fur of an animal from far northwards, would not in some cases be inherited for at least some few generations? and in this case I presume that the form would be called a variety.Again, we have many slight differences which may be called individual differences, such as are known frequently to appear in the offspring from the same parents, or which may be presumed to have thus arisen, from being frequently observed in the individuals of the same species inhabiting the same confined locality. No one supposes that all the individuals of the same species are cast in the very same mould. These individual differences are highly important for us, as they afford materials for natural selection to accumulate, in the same manner as man can accumulate in any given direction individual differences in his domesticated productions. These individual differences generally affect what naturalists consider unimportant parts; but I could show by a long catalogue of facts, that parts which must be called important, whether viewed under a physiological or classificatory point of view, sometimes vary in the individuals of the same species. I am convinced that the most experienced naturalist would be surprised at the number of the cases of variability, even in important parts of structure, which he could collect on good authority, as I have collected, during a course of years. It should be remembered that systematists are far from pleased at finding variability in important characters, and that there are not many men who will laboriously examine internal and important organs, and compare them in many specimens of the same species. I should never have expected that the branching of the main nerves close to the great central ganglion of an insect would have been variable in the same species; I should have expected that changes of this nature could have been effected only by slow degrees: yet quite recently Mr Lubbock has shown a degree of variability in these main nerves in Coccus, which may almost be compared to the irregular branching of the stem of a tree. This philosophical naturalist, I may add, has also quite recently shown that the muscles in the larvae of certain insects are very far from uniform. Authors sometimes argue in a circle when they state that important organs never vary; for these same authors practically rank that character as important (as some few naturalists have honestly confessed) which does not vary; and, under this point of view, no instance of any important part varying will ever be found: but under any other point of view many instances assuredly can be given.There is one point connected with individual differences, which seems to me extremely perplexing: I refer to those genera which have sometimes been called 'protean' or 'polymorphic,' in which the species present an inordinate amount of variation; and hardly two naturalists can agree which forms to rank as species and which as varieties. We may instance Rubus, Rosa, and Hieracium amongst plants, several genera of insects, and several genera of Brachiopod shells. In most polymorphic genera some of the species have fixed and definite characters. Genera which are polymorphic in one country seem to be, with some few exceptions, polymorphic in other countries, and likewise, judging from Brachiopod shells, at former periods of time. These facts seem to be very perplexing, for they seem to show that this kind of variability is independent of the conditions of life. I am inclined to suspect that we see in these polymorphic genera variations in points of structure which are of no service or disservice to the species, and which consequently have not been seized on and rendered definite by natural selection, as hereafter will be explained.Those forms which possess in some considerable degree the character of species, but which are so closely similar to some other forms, or are so closely linked to them by intermediate gradations, that naturalists do not like to rank them as distinct species, are in several respects the most important for us. We have every reason to believe that many of these doubtful and closely-allied forms have permanently retained their characters in their own country for a long time; for as long, as far as we know, as have good and true species. practically, when a naturalist can unite two forms together by others having intermediate characters, he treats the one as a variety of the other, ranking the most common, but sometimes the one first described, as the species, and the other as the variety. But cases of great difficulty, which I will not here enumerate, sometimes occur in deciding whether or not to rank one form as a variety of another, even when they are closely connected by intermediate links; nor will the commonly-assumed hybrid nature of the intermediate links always remove the difficulty. In very many cases, however, one form is ranked as a variety of another, not because the intermediate links have actually been found, but because analogy leads the observer to suppose either that they do now somewhere exist, or may formerly have existed; and here a wide door for the entry of doubt and conjecture is opened.Hence, in determining whether a form should be ranked as a species or a variety, the opinion of naturalists having sound judgement and wide experience seems the only guide to follow. We must, however, in many cases, decide by a majority of naturalists, for few well-marked and well-known varieties can be named which have not been ranked as species by at least some competent judges.
3. 生产制造:掌握现代化贴剂生产技术,哈尔滨设有新型贴剂生产基地,自有品牌生产及OEM,并已列入黑龙江省北药发展目录。
4. 应该说,作为一种理论,“价值”概念也能解释部分经济现象。然而,凡是“价值”概念可以解释的,仅用“供求关系”就足已解释了;而许多“价值”概念难以解释的经济现象,“供求关系”也可以轻松解释。所以,从解释功能来看,“价值”概念是多余的。
6. Take multiple measures to cut costs.


1. 除了内部管理的需要,坚持见大量项目也有对自己的要求,就是保持对行业的敏感度。
2. 1月2日,中国联合航空由成都双流国际机场飞往大兴国际机场的KN5218航班上,一名旅客突发身体不适。
3. 那么新疆的馕,堪称汇聚山川河流、煎炒烹炸一个的食材大类。
4. 关于如何进行申报,他告诉新京报记者,居民可扫描通知文件上的二维码,进行自主申报,填报的信息主要包括返深出发城市、车次,到访过何地等,登记完成后,我们就会恢复供水。
5. 第二天早上再量,36.3℃,是真的正常。
6.   "Yes, it is I," said the count, whom a frightful contractionof the lips prevented from articulating freely.


1.   "I feared that you would find it beyond you."
2. 随着时间的流逝,当月光和潮汐允许盟军横渡英吉利海峡到欧洲大陆时,暴风雨却来了,它好象要无限期地拖延这次远征。盟军最高指挥官艾森豪威尔将军将远征推迟了一天,然后决定于6月6日冒险发起进攻。幸运的是这时暴风雨有所减弱,不过,海上仍波浪滔天,许多士兵是在严重晕船的情况下到达对岸。巨大的舰队由4,000艘商船和700艘军舰组成。清晨6点30分登陆开始,到第一天结束时,已有326,
3. 过去一年,赵彤阳一直在尝试用互联网思维去做新房产品的改进和革新。
4. 而「掌上快销」起步于2016年8月,是华南最大的快消B2B企业,在广东、福建两省的13个城市、30个县城开展业务,服务10万家门店。
5. 与此同时,逾八成的录取率也让上大学变得更为容易。
6. 喝进身体的高度酒,只会被吸收代谢,不会作用于病毒。


1. 由此来看,随着人们生活水平的提高,18℃或许只能当做满足大家不冷的需求,而距离舒适还有一定的距离。
2. 早在2019年年初,宿华和程一笑向快手的员工表现出改变现状的决心。
3. 1988年,柳传志发现在香港进口电脑的价格要远低于内地,而内地市场,电脑价格一直居高不下,于是他建立了香港联想,并借助各种关系,拿到了美国AST电脑的总代理。
4.   Prince Perviz at first objected that, being the head of the family, his brother ought not to be allowed to expose himself to danger; but Prince Bahman would hear nothing, and retired to make the needful preparations for his journey.
5. 这两个国家也与美国签订了引渡协议。
6.   This seemed a happy opportunity to Manutio, to sing the dittie sopurposely done and devised: which hee delivered in such excellentmanner, the voice and Instrument concording so extraordinary pleasing;that all the persons then in the Presence, seemed rather Statues, thenliving men, so strangely they were wrapt with admiration, and the Kinghimselfe farre beyond all the rest, transported with a rare kinde ofalteration.


1.   `See!' cried madame, pointing with her knife. `See the old villain bound with ropes. That was well done to tie a bunch of grass upon his back. Ha, ha! That was well done. Let him eat it now!' Madame put her knife under her arm, and clapped her hands as at a play.
2.   "Yes, indeed; I had previously inquired of Dantes what washis opinion of you, and if he should have any reluctance tocontinue you in your post, for somehow I have perceived asort of coolness between you."
3.   Then, in order to explain how I came to be changed into a dog, I told her my whole story, and finished with rendering the mother the thanks due to her for the happiness she had brought me.

网友评论(78811 / 86025 )

  • 1:尹大伦 2020-07-30 04:28:59

      The contagion of thought here demonstrated itself. While Hansonreally came for bread, the thought dwelt with him that now hewould see what Carrie was doing. No sooner did he draw near herwith that in mind than she felt it. Of course, she had nounderstanding of what put it into her head, but, nevertheless, itaroused in her the first shade of real antipathy to him. Sheknew now that she did not like him. He was suspicious.

  • 2:罗德华 2020-07-20 04:28:59

      In regard to plants, there is another means of observing the accumulated effects of selection namely, by comparing the diversity of flowers in the different varieties of the same species in the flower-garden; the diversity of leaves, pods, or tubers, or whatever part is valued, in the kitchen-garden, in comparison with the flowers of the same varieties; and the diversity of fruit of the same species in the orchard, in comparison with the leaves and flowers of the same set of varieties. See how different the leaves of the cabbage are, and how extremely alike the flowers; how unlike the flowers of the heartsease are, and how alike the leaves; how much the fruit of the different kinds of gooseberries differ in size, colour, shape, and hairiness, and yet the flowers present very slight differences. It is not that the varieties which differ largely in some one point do not differ at all in other points; this is hardly ever, perhaps never, the case. The laws of correlation of growth, the importance of which should never be overlooked, will ensure some differences; but, as a general rule, I cannot doubt that the continued selection of slight variations, either in the leaves, the flowers, or the fruit, will produce races differing from each other chiefly in these characters.It may be objected that the principle of selection has been reduced to methodical practice for scarcely more than three-quarters of a century; it has certainly been more attended to of late years, and many treatises have been published on the subject; and the result, I may add, has been, in a corresponding degree, rapid and important. But it is very far from true that the principle is a modern discovery. I could give several references to the full acknowledgement of the importance of the principle in works of high antiquity. In rude and barbarous periods of English history choice animals were often imported, and laws were passed to prevent their exportation: the destruction of horses under a certain size was ordered, and this may be compared to the 'roguing' of plants by nurserymen. The principle of selection I find distinctly given in an ancient Chinese encyclopaedia. Explicit rules are laid down by some of the Roman classical writers. From passages in Genesis, it is clear that the colour of domestic animals was at that early period attended to. Savages now sometimes cross their dogs with wild canine animals, to improve the breed, and they formerly did so, as is attested by passages in Pliny. The savages in South Africa match their draught cattle by colour, as do some of the Esquimaux their teams of dogs. Livingstone shows how much good domestic breeds are valued by the negroes of the interior of Africa who have not associated with Europeans. Some of these facts do not show actual selection, but they show that the breeding of domestic animals was carefully attended to in ancient times, and is now attended to by the lowest savages. It would, indeed, have been a strange fact, had attention not been paid to breeding, for the inheritance of good and bad qualities is so obvious.At the present time, eminent breeders try by methodical selection, with a distinct object in view, to make a new strain or sub-breed, superior to anything existing in the country. But, for our purpose, a kind of Selection, which may be called Unconscious, and which results from every one trying to possess and breed from the best individual animals, is more important. Thus, a man who intends keeping pointers naturally tries to get as good dogs as he can, and afterwards breeds from his own best dogs, but he has no wish or expectation of permanently altering the breed. Nevertheless I cannot doubt that this process, continued during centuries, would improve and modify any breed, in the same way as Bakewell, Collins, &c., by this very same process, only carried on more methodically, did greatly modify, even during their own lifetimes, the forms and qualities of their cattle. Slow and insensible changes of this kind could never be recognised unless actual measurements or careful drawings of the breeds in question had been made long ago, which might serve for comparison. In some cases, however, unchanged or but little changed individuals of the same breed may be found in less civilised districts, where the breed has been less improved. There is reason to believe that King Charles's spaniel has been unconsciously modified to a large extent since the time of that monarch. Some highly competent authorities are convinced that the setter is directly derived from the spaniel, and has probably been slowly altered from it. It is known that the English pointer has been greatly changed within the last century, and in this case the change has, it is believed, been chiefly effected by crosses with the fox-hound; but what concerns us is, that the change has been effected unconsciously and gradually, and yet so effectually, that, though the old Spanish pointer certainly came from Spain, Mr Barrow has not seen, as I am informed by him, any native dog in Spain like our pointer.By a similar process of selection, and by careful training, the whole body of English racehorses have come to surpass in fleetness and size the parent Arab stock, so that the latter, by the regulations for the Goodwood Races, are favoured in the weights they carry. Lord Spencer and others have shown how the cattle of England have increased in weight and in early maturity, compared with the stock formerly kept in this country. By comparing the accounts given in old pigeon treatises of carriers and tumblers with these breeds as now existing in Britain, India, and Persia, we can, I think, clearly trace the stages through which they have insensibly passed, and come to differ so greatly from the rock-pigeon.

  • 3:孙建平 2020-07-23 04:28:59

      "You are mistaken; there I am ahead of you."

  • 4:上海-西宁西 2020-07-22 04:28:59

      Delighted at the thought that he had found so easily both a fortune and a beautiful wife, my brother asked no more questions, but concealing his purse, with the money the lady had given him, in the folds of his dress, he set out joyfully with his guide.

  • 5:刘彤 2020-08-03 04:28:59


  • 6:刘品言 2020-07-22 04:28:59


  • 7:胡明莹 2020-07-25 04:28:59

      - 'And your mama,' said Peggotty.

  • 8:周雅光 2020-08-05 04:28:59


  • 9:姚威 2020-08-03 04:28:59

      When the Brethren had imparted their loves extreamity each to theother, and plainely perceyved, that though they were equally intheir fiery torments, yet their desires were utterly contrary: theybegan severally to consider, that gaine gotten by Mirchandize,admitted an equall and honest division, but this purchase was of adifferent quality, pleading the title of a sole possession, withoutany partner or intruder. Fearefull and jealous were they both, leasteither should ayme at the others intention, yet willing enough toshake hands, in ridding Amurath out of the way, who onely was thehinderer of their hopes, Whereupon they concluded together, that ona day when the Ship sayled on very swiftly, and Amurath was sittingupon the Decke, studiously observing how the Billowes combatted eachwith other, and not suspecting any such treason in them towards him:stealing softly behinde him, sodainely they threw him into the Sea,the shippe floating on above halfe a Leagues distance, before anyperceived his fall into the Sea. When the Ladie heard thereof, and sawno likely meanes of recovering him againe, she fell to her wontedteares and lamentations: but the two Lovers came quickely to comforther, using kinde words and pithy perswasions (albeit she understoodthem not, or at the most very little) to appease the violence of herpassions; and, to speak uprightly, she did not so much emoane thelosse of Amurath, as the multiplying of her owne misfortunes, stillone succeeding in the necke of another. After divers long and welldelivered Orations, as also very faire and courteous behaviour, theyhad indifferently pacified her complainings: they beganne to discourseand commune with themselves, which of them had most right and title toAlathiella, and consequently ought to enjoy her. Now that Amurathwas gone, each pleaded his priviledge to bee as good as the others,both in the Ship, Goods, and all advantages else whatsoever happening:which the elder brother absolutely denied, alleadging first hispropriety of birth, a reason sufficient, whereby his younger oughtto give him place: Likewise, his right and interest both in the shipand goods, to be more then the others, as being heire to his father,and therefore in justice to be highest preferred. Last of all, thathis strength onely threw Amurath into the Sea, and therefore gavehim the full possession of his prize, no right at all remaining to hisbrother.

  • 10:邵世新 2020-07-21 04:28:59

      "I suppose that everyone finds his first independent start inbusiness a dreary experience. To me it has been exceptionally so.During two years I have had three consultations and one small job, andthat is absolutely all that my profession has brought me. My grosstakings amount to L27 10s. Every day, from nine in the morning untilfour in the afternoon, I waited in my little den, until at last: myheart began to sink, and I came to believe that I should never haveany practice at all.